Resolution adopted at the EGP Council, Rome, 20-22 February 2004. (.pdf)
A. Considering the EU embargo on the exports of arms to the PRC imposed after the harsh crackdown on peaceful pro-democracy demonstrators at Bejing's Tianamen Square on 4 June 1989,
B. Stressing the widespread human rights violations which take place in China; in particular the use of the Strike Hard Campaign to crack down on the Ouïgurs population, the repression in Tibet, the clampdown on cyber dissidents and social movements, the crackdown on political and religious dissidents, the increasing number of political prisoners, the repression of Falun Gong followers and the massive use of the death penalty,
C. Taking note of the first White Paper on the relations between the PRC and the EU that the Chinese government issued on the occasion of the EU/China Summit in October 2003, in which Beijing regards the EU as a potential counterweight to a unipolar world,
D. Pointing out that from the outset no tangible progress has been made as to the EU-China human rights dialogue,
E. Noting that during this summit China obtained the right to participate in the Galileo global satellite positioning system which, although it is a civilian project, is destined to have implications for all types of warfare,
F. Concerned that in early December 2004, in a conversation with his Chinese counterpart Wen Jiabao, German Chancellor Gerhardt Schroeder openly expressed his support to the lifting of the EU arms embargo;
G. Noting that the German chancellor has come out also in favour of exporting the Hanau Siemens nuclear mixed oxide fuel (MOX) plant to the PRC,
H. Taking into account that the Hanau Siemens MOX plant, or parts thereof, can be used for military purposes,
I. Stressing that in addition to this, plutonium must inevitably be transported in order to run the MOX plant. Its delivery must therefore also be considered from the point of the view of possible terrorist attacks and proliferation threats,
L. Noting, however, that nuclear technology, strictly spoken, does not fall under the current arms embargo, but that the Hanau Siemens MOX plant falls under the European Council Regulation 1334/2000 of 22 June 2000 on the 'Setting up a Community regime for the control of exports of dual-use items and technology', for which its Article 4 requires national authorities to grant specific permissions for this type of exports, in particular in the case that upon the country of destination an EU arms embargo has been imposed,
M. Taking also into account that the European Council Regulation 1334/2000 of 22 June 2000 on the 'Setting up a Community regime for the control of exports of dual-use items and technology', which stipulates that such permission can only be granted after having considered the risk that the country of destination will use the goods for military purposes, and/or the fact that this delivery might put European security interests at stake, i.e. by contributing to nuclear weapon proliferation.
N. Concerned that China is already the most important defence spender in this most militarised part of the globe where any violent conflict could degenerate due to the ongoing arms races and the permanent war tensions between India and Pakistan - both nuclear weapon states - over Kashmir,
O. Highly concerned by the aggressive statements of China on the Taiwan issue, as well as the increasing military build-up in the Taiwan Strait including the frequent exercises of the Chinese military forces in the region,
P. Recognising that China only acceded to the Nuclear Weapon Proliferation Treaty in 1992 and that, although signed to the 1997 International Atomic Agency Additional Safeguards Protocol, is not part of nuclear arms control regimes such as the Nuclear Suppliers Group and the Australia Group. Recognising, moreover, that China insists on its right to export nuclear energy 'for peaceful purposes' and in the past provided Pakistan and Iran with nuclear technology,
Q. Very concerned that the civil utilisation in China of the Hanau Siemens MOX plant will not be possible from an industrial as well as technical point of view, but instead might serve China to use it for military purposes also; concerned that China has refused information about the intended location of the plant,
1. Is convinced of the strategic importance of good economic and political relations between the European Union and China but believes that a genuine partnership can only be based on shared common values;
2. Deplores the fact that despite China's readiness to sign and ratify major human rights conventions, the human rights situation has further deteriorated. The Chinese authorities have succeeded in emptying the EU-China human rights dialogue of any substance, and to have avoided resolutions from the United Nations for several years;
3. Regrets that the first White Paper on the relations between the PRC and the EU says that the EU could become China's largest trading partner and that the PRC insists that the arms embargo should be lifted as a left-over from the last century (while stating in the same document that the EU should not deliver any military technology to Taiwan);
4. Strongly regrets the recent moves from different governments publicly or behind the scenes supporting the lifting of the arms embargo;
5. Regrets that during the EU summit in Rome in December, on the initiative of the French government, European leaders decided to put the issue on the agenda of the EU General Affairs and Relation Council to 're-examine' the embargo with the apparent intention to abolish it at the first appropriate opportunity;
6. Calls upon the EU to maintain the arms embargo until the human rights situation in China improves drastically, welcomes in this light the resolution of the European Parliament adopted on 18 December, 2003, on this issue.
7. Calls upon the EU Member States to implement the arms embargo in its letter and spirit not only to military and dual-use technology to the PRC, but also not to provide civil technology likely to be used for anti-riot purposes, torture and/or human rights violations;
8. Supports the struggle of the German Greens to refuse the export of the Siemens MOX nuclear plant to PRC;
9. Asks the Commission to introduce the appropriate measures to ensure all member states comply with the Council Regulation 1334/2000 on dual-use items;
10. Calls upon the Commission to have an independent investigation on the extent to which China complies with the letter and the spirit of all relevant treaties and has signed all further treaties and agreements required for the granting of a positive export decision, including strict guarantees have been obtained from China that in no way, under no conditions and in no time period any military use will be made of this plant;
11 Ask the member parties to forward this resolution to their foreign ministries and asks the Green Group in the EP to forward it as well to the office of the EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs, EU Council Secretariat and the European Commission.
12. Call upon the Council of Ministers to declare the EU Code of Conduct for arms export binding.
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